Tagged: ethics

What is Moral Skepticism?

What is Moral Skepticism?

Introduction Moral Skepticism is a meta-Ethical theory that holds that human beings do not have moral knowledge. Some Moral Skeptics hold an even strong position that moral knowledge is not even possible. If we agree that knowledge is ‘justified true belief’, Moral Skeptics would claim knowledge about moral claims can never be justified, and would therefore be only beliefs. In other words, they would make a distinction between what is belief and what is knowledge...

What is Moral Realism?

What is Moral Realism?

Introduction Moral Realism or Moral Objectivism is a meta-Ethical theoretical position that holds that moral values are to be understood as objective and independent from human perception. That is to say, moral realists hold that moral values can be reduced to moral facts that are independent of beliefs or a concrete societal entity. Instead, moral facts describe the real/actual world. Moral Realisms thus holds that moral facts and judgements about moral facts can be understood in similar certainty as...

What is Pluralism (Brief)?

What is Pluralism (Brief)?

Introduction Pluralism, rather unsurprisingly, is used in a variety of ways in philosophy. Generally speaking, however, it is used to denote that there two or more substances or principles according to which our world view should be based. When speaking of substances, Pluralism is contrasted to Monism and Dualism. Monism holds the view that there is ultimately only one kind of substance in the world (usually either a physical substance, such as water or fire for the Ancients,...

What is Ethical Non-Naturalism?

What is Ethical Non-Naturalism?

Introduction Ethical Non-Naturalism (or Moral Non-Naturalism) is a meta-ethical doctrine. It is meant as a counterpart to Ethical Naturalism. As the name suggests, in Ethical Non-Naturalism the propositions expressed are not reducible to non-ethical statements, which is the assumption held by Ethical Naturalism. For example, it is not possible to define ‘good’ and  ‘bad’ as natural properties – as in, say, what is ‘pleasurable’ or ‘desirable’. That is to say, Ethical Non-Naturalism holds that such conceptions as...

Zizek on neighbourly love

Zizek on neighbourly love

It is relatively well known that Zizek calls himself a ‘Christian atheist’ – paradoxical as that may sound. In this post, let us have a look at a particular statement from Christ, ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’ that Zizek gives a particular spin to. This is, as readers of Zizek would expect, a political statement, not simply a moral or religious one; and it is in this sense that Zizek can entertain the relationship between...

Science and ethics, through Wittgenstein’s Tractatus

Wittgenstein famously ends his Tractatus with the seventh proposition: “Whereof one cannot speak, thereof one should be silent.” (Ogden trans.) Simple enough, it would seem. Not able to say something meaningful, or add something meaningful to the conversation? Then better not speak at all! But this is not a sufficient explanation – it is precisely what is ‘meaningful’ that is at stake with this proposition. Let us put Tractatus in perspective first. For early (‘Tractarian’) Wittgenstein,...