Tagged: epistemology

What is Ordinary Language Philosophy (Brief)?

What is Ordinary Language Philosophy (Brief)?

Introduction Ordinary Language Philosophy is a method to approach traditional problems in philosophy as misunderstandings of the use of words. In particular, the argument is that philosophers often forget that words have ordinary meanings in language and are not always to be understood in an abstract sense. Defenders of Ordinary Language Philosophy thus pay closer attention to how words are understood ordinarily and attempt to dissuade philosophical discussion to be about solving age-old philosophical problems. Instead,...

What is Instrumentalism?

What is Instrumentalism?

Introduction Instrumentalism is a methodological approach in Epistemology and Philosophy of Science. It was advanced by the American pragmatist philosopher John Dewey, who held the view that (philosophical) theories are instrumental – literally, instrumental means that something services only as a means of pursuing an aim. That is to say, the worth of theories is not measured in the binary true or false or even if they are applicable to reality or depict reality accurately. Instead, Dewey...

What is Pluralism (Brief)?

What is Pluralism (Brief)?

Introduction Pluralism, rather unsurprisingly, is used in a variety of ways in philosophy. Generally speaking, however, it is used to denote that there two or more substances or principles according to which our world view should be based. When speaking of substances, Pluralism is contrasted to Monism and Dualism. Monism holds the view that there is ultimately only one kind of substance in the world (usually either a physical substance, such as water or fire for the Ancients,...

What is Deconstruction?

What is Deconstruction?

Introduction Deconstruction (or sometimes just Deconstructionism) was initiated by Jacques Derrida in the 1960s as a theoretical approach in Epistemology and Philosophy of Language and philosophy more broadly. Though notoriously misunderstood, mainly due to its initial reception, it is at the core an approach to literary criticism. With this approach, Derrida aimed to put to test traditional assumptions about certainty, identity, and truth more generally. Influenced by the early 20th century French linguists, Derrida asserted that words can only refer...

What is Fallibilism?

What is Fallibilism?

Introduction Fallibilism is the philosophical doctrine that claims that knowledge cannot be certain in an absolute sense. Historically speaking, some early Greek philosopher could be said to have been fallibilists (e.g. Socrates who places a limit on knowledge without going as far as sceptics). Nevertheless, as a doctrine it only comes to prominence in the 19th century with the development of pragmatism of William James, John Dewey, and Charles Sanders Peirce. In the 20th century,...