Tagged: philosophers

What is Renaissance Philosophy?

What is Renaissance Philosophy?

As in other disciplines, the Renaissance period in philosophy falls between the Medieval and Modern periods and cover the thinkers of the 15th and 16th centuries. It is sometimes argued that the Renaissance period forms the foundation for Modern philosophy, because it gradually sways away from thinking in traditional terms and focuses on Reason – which, arguably, is at the centre of Modernity. Etymologically, Renaissance is derived from French and means ‘rebirth’. The aim of...

What is Egalitarianism?

What is Egalitarianism?

Introduction Egalitarianism is a doctrine in moral and political philosophy that maintains the equality of all people. By and large, equality is understood as appearing equal under law, rather than social and/or economic equality. Nevertheless, Egalitarianism does highlight that human beings are to be treated equally with regards to social and economic rights. It thus advocates the removal of all kinds of inequalities that could lead to political inequality. Most common aspects of equality for...

What is Epicureanism (Brief)?

What is Epicureanism (Brief)?

Introduction Epicureanism is a Hellenistic doctrine that is named after its found: the Ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus. The foundations for Epicureanism were laid out after Epicurus opened his school in his own garden in 307 BC – the school was thus aptly named ‘The Garden’ (or Epicurus’ Garden). At the core of his teachings were a materialist conception of the universe, which were a continuation of the earlier philosopher Democritus and the Atomists. Epicureanism was initial intent was to challenge the dominating Platonism....

What is Pluralism (Ancient)?

What is Pluralism (Ancient)?

Pluralism is a philosophical doctrine that can be attributed to three figures of 5th century BC: Anaxagoras, Archelaus, and Empedocles. All three made attempts to resolve the differences between refutation of change by Parmenides (and the Eleatic School more generally) and the manifest sense perception of the world. Their attempts could be said to have culminated in a project of looking for a singular source of all change. First, Anaxagoras’s point of view was that all matter has existed from...

What is Ordinary Language Philosophy (Brief)?

What is Ordinary Language Philosophy (Brief)?

Introduction Ordinary Language Philosophy is a method to approach traditional problems in philosophy as misunderstandings of the use of words. In particular, the argument is that philosophers often forget that words have ordinary meanings in language and are not always to be understood in an abstract sense. Defenders of Ordinary Language Philosophy thus pay closer attention to how words are understood ordinarily and attempt to dissuade philosophical discussion to be about solving age-old philosophical problems. Instead,...

What is Hedonism (Brief)?

What is Hedonism (Brief)?

Introduction Hedonism is a philosophical doctrine originating from the Hellenistic period of Ancient Greece. While there are many doctrines that incorporate elements of hedonism, the one constant that they all have in common is the centrality of the pursuit of pleasure. In particular, hedonists agree that human beings should always aim to maximise pleasure. While the Greek philosopher expressed a form of hedonism in the 5th century BC, its earliest explicit proponent was Socrates’s student Aristippus of Cyrene, who...

What is Communitarianism?

What is Communitarianism?

Introduction Communitarianism is a political doctrine that emphasises the importance of a given community over its individuals. While the view has existed for a very long time, and is present in, for example, Plato, its articulation as a doctrine has only become prevalent in the 20th century. Communitarianism is particularly opposed to both Libertarianism, a doctrine that places emphasis on the individuals’ independence and liberty (especially in the domain of economics). Elements of Communitarianism is to...

What is Panentheism?

What is Panentheism?

Introduction Panentheism is a view that Nature and God are one and the same. In this regard, it is similar to Pantheism; however, unlike the latter, Panentheism does not equate the two and instead stresses that God is more than Nature alone. While one can speak of Nature as being synonymous to speaking about God, and just as with Pantheism, to claim that God is present in all aspects of Nature, Panentheism holds that God is more...

What is Pantheism?

What is Pantheism?

Introduction Pantheism is the theoretical position that God is everywhere and everything; that God not only is present in every aspect of human life, but truly inhabits all that is known. This is to say that not only is God present in our decision-making processes, but that we ourselves, as human beings, are already part of God. Most Pantheists hold that God and Nature are one and the same thing, albeit the meaning of nature is not...

What is Phenomenology (Brief)?

What is Phenomenology (Brief)?

Introduction Phenomenology is a philosophical approach / method that rose to prominence in the early 20th century, largely developed in Germany by philosophers Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger, but also took hold in France by Maurice Jean Jacques Merleau-Ponty. The main premise of phenomenology is that ‘reality’ is perceived and understood through human consciousness and is not independent of it – objects in the world as well as historical and other events are ‘phenomena’ that are observed...