Congratulations America

As the American people have cast their votes on Tuesday, it is time to wholeheartedly congratulate the country with their 45th president: Donald J. Trump. While celebrations are high, and expectations even higher, it is nevertheless time to reflect on this historic moment. What does a Trump presidency mean for the left? While the Clinton campaign is reflecting on their loss – or at least, that is the speculation that we must hold – the […]

Differences between Marxism, Leninism, Trotskyism, Stalinism, and Maoism

While teaching a module on the Communist Manifesto (and the Manifesto alone), a student of mine admitted to struggle with different forms of Marxism. Though I am not an expert on these, being schooled in Marxism only, it became apparent that I should perhaps have a somewhat rudimentary knowledge of what the differences are in order to satisfy different interests. At the same time, there are many forms of Marxism – so to enumerate all […]

The ‘history repeats itself’ paradox – part 1

The popularized proverb ‘history repeats itself’ is somehow paradoxical. On the one hand, most if not all states in the world teach history in progressive terms (i.e. as linear); yet, majority of people actually believe that history repeats itself. How is that possible? We can put the question somewhat differently: If history repeats itself, we should be able to avoid the mistakes from the past; but we do not – and hence we say that history […]